메인 Social Science & Medicine The roots of power: Animate form and gendered bodies: By Maxine Sheets-Johnstone. Open Court...
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1606 Book Reviews The profiles included are based on a questionnaire sent to each group, but the editor and his contributors often went beyond the information provided by the groups themselves. Although some profiles stick too close to a group's selfdescription, others attend to political clout, conflict and cooperation with other interest groups, and success in legislative and regulatory policymaking. Particular attention is given to each group's activities in the early 1990s in connection with the effort to pass comprehensive health care reform, although the profiles were completed before that effort failed late in 1994. Although the book does not include all health care interest groups, or even all important groups, those most active in Congressional testimony find their way into the text. The profiles include groups that provide health care and that represent consumers of health care, as well as interests that finance care and others that sponsor research. Groups described range from the well-known--American Medical Association, Health Insurance Association of America and National Federation of Independent Business--to the far less visible--American Rehabilitation Association, National Association of Chain Drug Stores and National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations. Appendix B lists the names and addresses of important groups not included in the profiles. No vital omissions occur. The editor's introduction classifies group types and subtypes and portrays the varying perspectives that follow from a group's placement in the system (provider, advocacy group, not-for-profit or for-profit, etc.). It briefly summarizes the historical context of past and present health care reform debates, supplies a fine bibliography and lists chronologically major federal health care legislation from 1924 to 1990. A typical group profile runs two to four pages. Each has a consistent format, beginning with a brief summary of the nature of the group. The profile continues with an historical summary; of the group's origin and development. Attention to the group's political ideology is well-done, and it is fascinating to note how many groups arose in connection with seeking government regulation or assistance. The next sections describe the group's organization and funding and its policy concerns and tactics. Finally, a brief section describes its electoral activity (if any), including summaries of Political Action Committee contributions. Each entry concludes with a list of the group's own publications and a brief bibliography of works written about the group. Some of the bibliographic entries are descriptive and historical, others journalistic, and still others social scientific. The bibliographies are especially valuable for researchers just beginning a project. The alphabetical organization of the text and the group entries themselves do an excellent job of tracking and reporting the name changes over the life of a group. These are cross-referenced so that a user who has only a past or a current name can track down the continuous history of a group's policy involvement. Reference works of this type need an excellent index. Users will turn to the index not only for names of groups and of persons associated with them (which this index does well), but also for discovering all of the groups active in a particular policy area or a particular part of the health care system, such as Medicare or the hospital industry. This latter quality is the book's only significant weakness. There are full entries for some important topics, for example, Medicare, Medicaid, ERISA, hospice, AIDS/HIV and Health Care Financing Administration. Other important topics or health care sectors, including some addressed in the profiles themselves, are missing from the index. For example, there are no entries for hospital, physicians, the uninsured, accreditation, insurance, health care reform or long-term care. The profiles included in this work are so well-done and so important that they should be updated and re-published every few years. More complete indexing should bedone at that time. Perhaps future editions could be published in paper or at a reasonable cost for personal ownership. The Roots of Power: Animate Form and Gendered Bodies, by Maxine Sheets-Johnstone. Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago, IL, 1994, 433 pp., U.S.$18.95 (paperback), $44.95 (cloth). representation of power and power relations in the Western world. In Chapter One, setting the stage for her argument, the author explores Foucault concerning his thoughts on the centrality of vision in relation to power and sexuality as well as Sartre's The Look also emphasizing the power of vision. She postulates the import of an optics of power and the power of optics that will provide the frame for her claim that power is rooted in our animate form and our bodily selves and that cultural transformations are interpreted by socie .tal pro- and prescriptions. The author asserts that the roots of power are essentially related to our bodily 'Ican's' which are based on our bodily evolutionary heritage, are pan-human and are not sexual in nature. A detailed exploration of non-human primate behavior undergirds this point. While discussing postmodernism, she elucidates how postmodernism culturalizes power at the expense of the bodily 'I c a n t and how sociobiology biologizes gender at the expense of cultural inscriptions. In Chapter Five, corporeal archetypes are linked to sex, aggression and female vulnerability. The woman's year-round receptivity and the man's perpetual erection as cultural archetypes are examined and linked to sanctioning male violence. In reading in this chapter about rape as one of those cultural transformations, one has to wonder whether the Western world is as civilized as it claims to be. To demonstrate the distortions, overstatements, suppressions, elaborations, omissions and idio~cracies in the Maxine Sheets-Johnstone's book The Roots of Power is indeed a powerful book: the reader is captured by an intellectually adventurous journey. This truly interdisciplinary work is stunning because of its originality and depth, but primarily because of the scholarly sophistication in which pivotal ideas of Western civilization are brought together and integrated with the aim to preserve the feminine in a phallocentric world. Darwinian evolutionary theory, philosophy, anthropology, sociology, primatology, psychology and psychoanalysis are systematically scrutinized to illustrate and explain power relations, especially the abusive nature of power relations in Western civilized countries. Its discourse about the bodily and evolutionary origins of power and the cultural remaking of those origins is riveting; its message is compelling. The book is about corporeal archetypes that originated in and were transmitted by our evolutionary heritage. It is also about how these corporeal and intercorporeal archetypes were reworked into cultural archetypes which are embedded in the patriarchal societies of the Western civilized world and have sustained patriarchal power relations. From this perspective, power is defmed as control and viewed as the prime Department of Pofitical Science Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409 U.S.A. CILrke E. Cochran Book Reviews 1607 transformation of corporeal and intercorporeal archetypes into cultural ones, pivotal thinkers of the twentieth century are unyieldingiy analyzed. However, at the center of analysis is the analysis of psychoanalysis with emphasis on Sartre's psychoanalytic ontology and Lacan's psychoanalysis. The commonality between Sartre's and Lacan's discussion of the masculine and the feminine is the neglect of the body. Lacan goes to the extreme of postulating that the human experience is pure linguistics--even Freud conceded that there is a body. The conclusion of this thorough analysis---the reader unfamiliar with Lacan may have some difficulties working his or her way through the last four chapters---is the demonstration that Sartre's view of women as being in the form of a whole is a "radicalization" of the feminine that degrades women and their bodies, and that Lacan's psychoanalytic enshrinement of the phallus makes women disappear altogether. The feminist reader will be confronted with the notion that construction of power relations as exclusively socio-culturally determined by male dominance or patriarchy is a one-sided point of view and conceals or ignores the significance of the animate or bodily form. The open-minded feminist reader will acknowledge that the current discourse about power relations will be enriched by making the body and its evolutionary heritage an integrated component of that discourse. The watchword of the feminist movement "the personal is political and the political is personal" and the disregard of the body as a focal point of the discourse demands a fundamental revision--and The Roots of Power in its clear and persistent argument and its extensive documentation provides just that. If it were true that women are the peaceable sex--which they probably are not, and if it were true that men are equally negatively affected by Western power relations-which they probably are, then this book could serve as a watershed and as a guidepost for reworking the cultural archetypes of power and remaking them into a power of caring. In the epilogue, Maxine Sheets-Johnstone writes "It is in . . . reclaiming the 'I can's' that we awaken the most fundamental understandings of power. They are grounded in the body. In this very sense, the miraculous is not basically sexual but human. Though surely there are sexual differences, the miraculous itself is corporeal ... In that dimension of ourselves lie our creative powers, our powers of regeneration, of self-transformation, of imagination, of fecundity" (p. 334). In our often blinded attempts to export the 'goodness' of our Western civilization to developing countries, the message of the book could be refrained as follows: reworking your cultural archetypes of power must occur in your historical, social and cultural context-it cannot be a copycat of ours! After reading The Roots of Power as a practitioner of psychoanalysis, I felt a sense of discontent and futility because of a dilemma that the book brought into focus. In order to help the chronically ill I have treated over the years, therapy must aim at the alleviation of alienation and at adaption to life, as marginal as it might be. I find myself struggling with which view of power do l use as frame of reference; and in spite of my gender sensitivity, I see little choice other than to sustain the notion that power equates control. Changing this traditional perception of power, as much as I want to, would create a deeper sense of alienation for the patient. Thus, the notion of power as control has haunted me and this is not a matter of psychoanalytic principles, it is a matter of societal prescriptions. Sexual Abuse and Consensual Sex: Women's Developmental Patterns and Outcomes, by Gall Elizabeth Wyatt, Michael D. Newcomb and Monika H. Riederle. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA, 1993, 250 pp., U.S.$24.95. to fast-moving normative change. There is little here to inform the reader of current, state of the art research. Perhaps one of the difficulties with the lack of integration of the research findings stems from the writers' failure to address the theory of sexuality adequately. There is currently a great deal of exciting work being carried out theorizing sexuality and sexual practices, some of it in the United States, some of it in other countries such as Great Britain and Australia. While it is entirely reasonable for the authors to choose their own theoretical framework, in this case social learning theory, it is a great pity that they do not address more contemporary theories as background to their own research. Turning to the actual study itself, the uncertainty about the audience for this book becomes a significant issue. For the interested practitioner, there is too much detail about method and too little about results. In spite of the writers' decision to provide a three-tiered description of results, which they argue will address the needs of multiple readers, I cannot imagine that the 'simplest' version will satisfy a non-academic, practioner audience. For researchers, there is inadequate information, for example about the immense questionnaire that the authors used or the justification for the socialization measures selected. Most importantly, the authors argue for the validity of retrospective data about sexual experiences, specifically sexual abuse. There is considerable debate about the confidence that can be placed on memories of sexual abuse or indeed other retrospective data about emotionally-charged and sensitive areas of human functioning, a point which the authors concede in their last chapter, along with some The problem of sexual abuse has attracted considerable attention in recent years, in the media as well as among those working with victims of abuse and those wishing to understand better the nature of sexuality and relationships between men and women. So a book which provides some insights into the antecedents and consequences for women of sexual abuse is a welcome addition to the burgeoning literature on human sexuality. The authors report a study in which 248 African-American and European-American women from Los Angeles County were interviewed about their sexual history, including experiences as children and adolescents, as well as current experiences. The women also provided information about their sexual socialization and aspects of their psychological well-being. The book begins with a series of brief chapters reviewing research on sexual behaviour from childhood to adulthood, the study's methodology is then described, a detailed account of data analysis and results is presented, and finally there is a discussion of the findings with some implications for the prevention of sexual abuse. It is a curious book which reads, for the most part, like a doctoral thesis, and it is not clear who is being targeted as potential readers. The chapters on previous research are sketchy and there is a lack of development of key themes. The reliance on old research such as the work of Kinsey et al. is odd in an area of human functioning that is subject Departments of Psychiatry Renate Forssmann-Falek and Psychology Virginia Commonwealth University 406 West Franklin Street Richmond, VA 23220 U.S.A.