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Effect of Dry Matter Intake from Whole Goat Milk and Calf Milk Replacer on Performance of Nubian Goat Kids E. A B R A M S , P. G U T H R I E , and B. H A R R I S Animal Science Department Agriculture Research Station Fort Valley State College Fort Valley, GA 31030 ABSTRACT The dry matter in calf milk replacer was compared with dry matter in goat milk for Nubian goat kids. Kids we.re fed the following diets from 4 days of age for 6 wk: 1) whole goat milk (14.0% dry matter), 2) calf milk replacer (13.5% dry matter), and 3) calf milk replacer (18.0% dry matter). Body weight of kids fed whole milk and 18.0% dry matter milk replacer increased each week. Kids fed the 13.5% dry matter milk replacer increased in weight to the 3rd wk but steadily declined thereafter. Total weight gain was more for kids fed whole milk (3.89 kg) than for kids fed milk replacer diets with 13.5 or 18.0% dry matter (.79 and 3.06 kg, respectively). For the first 3 wk, average daily gain was lowest for kids fed 18.0% milk replacer diet, but highest for wk 4 to 6. These data indicate that 3-week-old goat kids can utilize large amounts of dry matter from milk replacer to sustain a rate of growth similar to that of kids fed whole milk; however, high amounts of dry matter from milk replacer are poorly utilized by kids during the first 3 wk of life. INTRODUCTION Proper feeding of replacement animals is very important in any livestock enterprise. One critical factor in the development and expansion of dairy goats as a viable and profitable enterprise is finding an adequate and economical milk substitute or replacer for feeding kids. This would allow goat's milk to be utilized for Received October 22, 1984. 1985 J Dairy Sci 68:1748-1751 marketing and family consumption. Arora et al. (2) and Appleman and Owens (1) reported that milk substitutes were used successfully in reducing the cost of feeding calves without significantly affecting their growth. Cunningham et al. (6) and Chiou and Jordan (5) found similar results in lambs fed for 4 wk, mi; lk replacer containing different amounts of fat and protein. Lynch et al. (10) reported that milk replacer promoted growth of calves comparable to whole milk. Goat kids can be reared as successfully on milk replacer as on whole goat milk (8). Skjevdal (16), Opstvedt (14), Mowlew (12), and Morand-Fehr et al. (11) found similar growth rates in kids fed milk replacer and those fed cow milk and goat milk. However, Opstvedt (14) obtained these results by feeding 50% more dry matter (DM) with milk replacer than with goat milk; Skjevdal (16) found a better growth rate in kids only at the highest intake of milk replacer, and Mowlew (12) observed similar results only at high concentrations of 18 to 20% DM milk replacer. Dry matter intake also was reported (9) as a major factor influencing weight gain in calves. These studies indicate that growth performance of young animals fed milk replacer is highly influenced by DM intake. More information is needed on DM concentration and feeding milk replacer for dairy goat kids. Out study was to evaluate the effect of DM concentrations and intake of milk and milk replacer on growth response of young Nubian goats. MATERIALS AND METHODS Newborn Nubian goat kids remained with does for 20 to 24 h after birth. Then they were separated and housed inside a barn in individual 1.22 x 1.22-m wooden pens on a concrete floor with wood shavings for bedding. All kids were fed colostrum until 3 days of age. 1748 1749 MILK OR MILK REPLACER FOR KIDS Thirty-six 4-day-old kids were assigned randomly to one of three treatments consisting of 1) whole goat milk containing 14.0% DM (WM), 2) milk replacer containing 13.5% DM (13.5% MR), and 3) milk replacer containing 18.0% DM (18.0% MR). Milk and milk replacer were fed twice daily at fluid intakes of 10% of body weight per day for WM and 13.5% MR and 15% of body weight per day for 18.0% MR. All animals were weighed at 3 days of age and at weekly intervals during the 6-wk experiment. Fluid intake was based on body weight and was adjusted weekly, tn cases where kids Iost weight, fluid intake remained the same as the previous week. A calf milk replacer powder 1 was mixed with fresh water daily, and all diets were warmed to 36 to 38°C prior to each feeding. Milk replacer was medicated (oxytetracycline 110 g/metric ton ; neomycin sulfate 330 g/metric ton) and contained not less than 22% protein, not less than 12% fat, and not more than .5% crude fiber. Milk and milk replacer were fed by nipple bottle with individual intake recorded by weight at each feeding. Clean fresh water was provided for ad libitum intake. Water intake was not measured; thus, the effect of fluid intake (milk and milk replacer plus water) on incidence of scours was not studied. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and comparisons of differences between means were evaluated by the least significant difference procedure (17). Seven kids were excluded from analysis due to mortality or severe weakness. Data analyses and means include only kids that were weaned. 1 .5 "Iv & X H I L K REPLACER ( 1 3 . 5 X DH) ~ M I L K REPLACER (18% DM) -=WHOLE MILK 1.2 S 0.9 W < z 0.6 0.3 0.0 0 WEEKS OF AGE Figure 1. Dry matter (DM) intake of Nubian dairy goat kids fed whole goat milk and milk replacer containing 1 3.5 and 1896 dry matter. or capability to handle large amounts of DM this early in life. Body weight of kids fed WM increased each week of the experimental period (Figure 2), but kids fed the 13.5% MR showed an increase in body weight only to the 3rd week. Body weight increase of kids fed the 18.0% MR was less than that of kids fed either WM or the 13.5% MR during the initial 3 wk. However, from wk 4 to 6, kids fed the 13.5% MR showed a steady decline of body weight, whereas those fed the 18.0% MR showed a steady increase. The growth responses for kids fed the 18.0% MR from 1 to 3 wk may be explained by their 10 X RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Weekly DM intake by kids was similar for all treatments through the 2nd wk but increased for kids fed the WM for the remainder of the 6 wk (Figure 1). The expected higher weekly intake of DM by kids fed the 18.0% MR (containing 4 and 4.5% more DM than milk and the 13.5% MR, respectively) did not occur until the 3rd week. This lower intake was a result of feed refusals and indicates a lack of digestive capacity -" ~ X M I L K REPLACER m H I L K REPLACER =--WHOLEMILK (13.5% DM) (18% DM) 6 I ~ 4 g 2 o WEEKS OF AGE ~Purina Nurse Chow 200TM; Ralston Purina Co., St. Louis, MO. Figure 2. Body weight of Nubian dairy goat kids fed whole goat milk and milk replacer containing 13.5 and 18% dry matter. Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 68, No. 7, 1985 1750 ABRAMS ETAL. inability to utilize fully ingested n u t r i e n t s ; for kids fed t h e 13.5% M R f r o m 4 t o 6 wk, g r o w t h r e s p o n s e s indicate t h a t t h e DM in t h e 13.5% MR was n o t s u p p l y i n g a d e q u a t e or p r o p e r a m o u n t s o f n u t r i e n t s . Kids fed the 13.5% M R lost weight f r o m w k 4 to 6 even t h o u g h DM intake at wk 1 to 3 and 4 to 6 was similar (Table 1) and s h o u l d have b e e n sufficient to at least m a i n t a i n their weight. Similar results have b e e n o b s e r v e d (18) in calves during the first 3 wk of age. Final 6-wk w e i g h t was significantly m o r e for kids fed WM t h a n t h a t for t h o s e fed either t h e 13.5% MR or 18.0% M R (Table 1). T o t a l gain was higher in WM-fed kids for the 6 w k and also for wk 1 to 3. Kids fed 18.0% M R had t h e lowest t o t a l gain for w k 1 to 3 b u t had the highest t o t a l gain for wk 4 to 6. T h e average daily gain ( A D G ) over the 6-wk was highest in WM-fed kids and lowest in kids fed t h e 13.5% MR (Table 1). However, for t h e first 3 wk, A D G was lower in kids fed the 18.0% MR; for wk 4 to 6, kids fed t h e 18.0% MR had the highest ADG. This indicates an increased capability to utilize large a m o u n t s o f DM. Even t h o u g h the digestive capability for handling high c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f DM i m p r o v e d in kids fed t h e 18.0% M R for w k 4 to 6, as DM intake increased, w e i g h t gain did n o t increase in direct p r o p o r t i o n to DM intake; thus, kids r e q u i r e d m o r e DM per unit o f w e i g h t gain at the high rate o f DM intake. Increased a m o u n t o f DM required per kilogram o f gain indicates r e d u c e d e f f i c i e n c y o f utilization. This is consistent with data (15) in calves w h e r e e f f i c i e n c y o f utilization o f milk replacer was r e d u c e d at high DM c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . These data are in a g r e e m e n t with o t h e r r e p o r t s (3, 4, 7, 13) t h a t kids can be raised successfully on milk replacer. There were no severe cases o f scours. Inc i d e n c e o f scours was 17% for all kids on this study. The m o r t a l i t y and severe weakness observed in kids a p p e a r e d t o be r e s p i r a t o r y related r a t h e r t h a n the results o f scours. Similar o c c u r r e n c e s were evident in all t r e a t m e n t groups. The e f f e c t o f scours on kid p e r f o r m a n c e TABLE 1. Effect of whole goat milk and milk replacer on performance of nubian kids. Diet Whole milk Total intake, kg Wk 1 - 3 Wk 4 - 6 Wk 1 6 Initial weight, kg Final weight, kg Total gain, kg Wk 0 - 3 Wk 4 - 6 Wk 0 - 6 Avg daily gain, g Wk 0 - 3 Wk 4 - 6 Wk 0 6 Avg daily DM intake, g Wk 1 - 3 Wk 4 - 6 Wk 1 - 6 abel Milk replacer (13.5% DM) l Milk replacer (18.0% DM) SE 2 1.58 a 2.20 d 3.79 d 3.98 7.87 a 1.49 a 1.49 d 2.97 d 3.64 4.43 b 1.98 b 3.23 e 5.21 e 3.86 6.93 a .15 .38 .50 .35 .91 1.97 a 1.92 d 3.89 d 1.34 bc -.55 e .79 e .99 c 2.07 d 3.06 d .27 .72 .67 94 a 91 d 93 d 64 bc -26 e 19 e 47 c 99 d 73 d 13 34 16 75 a 105 a 90 d 71 a 71 a 71 d 98 b 154 b 124 e 7 18 12 ,- ' lvieans wltmn the same row having different superscripts differ (/'<.05). d'eMeans within the same row having different superscripts differ (P<.01). DM = Dry matter. 2Standard error of mean, n=14 for whole milk, 7 for 13.5% DM milk replacer, and 8 for 18.0% DM milk replacer. Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 68, No. 7, 1985 MILK OR MILK REPLACER FOR KIDS n e e d s to b e evaluated, especially during t h e first 3 w k o f t h e kid's life. It is c o n c l u d e d t h a t 3-wk-old Nubian kids can utilize large a m o u n t s o f DM f r o m 18% DM milk replacer t o sustain a g r o w t h p e r f o r m a n c e similar to t h a t received f r o m feeding w h o l e milk. H o w e v e r , high a m o u n t s o f DM f r o m milk replacer are p o o r l y utilized b y kids during t h e first 3 w k o f life. 7 8 9 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The a u t h o r s wish to t h a n k T h o m a s Baker, g o a t h e r d s m a n , for his invaluable assistance, d e d i c a t i o n , and c o n c e r n , w h i c h m a d e this research possible, Erie G o o d m a n for technical assistance, R o n a l d Abe for his valuable advice and c o n s u l t a t i o n s o n milk replacers, and T o m W o o d y for graph preparations. This research was s u p p o r t e d b y U S D A / S E A / C S R S . REFERENCES 1 Appleman, R. D., and F. G. Owens. 1975. Symposium : Recent advances in calf rearing. I[1. Breeding, housing and feeding management. J. Dairy Sci. 58:447. 2 Arora, S. P., L. D. Bajpai, and B. K. Dave. 1973. Raising cross-bred and Buffalo calves on milk replacer. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 43:462. 3 Arora, S., R. Chapra, and P. Atreda. 1982. Relative performance of kids fed milk and milk replacer on growth rate. Page 492 in Proc. 11I. Int. Conf. Goat Prod. Dis., Tucson, AZ. 4 Chandna, S., and S. P. Arora. 1979. The influence of feeding milk replacer on the growth rate and feed efficiency of kids. Ind. J. Dairy Sci. 32:324. 5 Chiou, P.W.S., and R. M. Jordan. 1973. Ewe milk replacer diets for young lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 37:58. 6 Cunningham, J.M.M., R. A. Edwards, and M. E. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1751 Simpson. 1961. Rearing lambs on a synthetic diet. Anita. Prod. 3:105. Galina, M., and J. Ruiz. 1983. Dairy goat rearing management with milk and milk substitutes. 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Norwegian experiments on nutrition and milk quality in goats. In Grassland in sheep and goat production. C.R.W. Spedding, ed. Eur. Assoc. Anim. Prod. Rep. No. 2, Study Comm. Anim. Nutr. Pettyjohn, J. D., J. P. Everett, Jr., and R. D. Mochrie. 1963. Responses of dairy calves to milk replacer fed at various concentrations. J. Dairy Sci. 46:710. Skjevdal, T. 1974. Milk feeding of kids. Rep. 173, Vol. 53, NR 39, Dep. Anim. Nutr., Agric, Univ. Norway. Snedecor, G. W., and W. G. Cochran. 1967. Statistical methods. 6th ed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. Stiles, R. P., D. G. Grive, D. G. Butler, and R. A. Willoughby. 1974. Effects of fluid intake level and dry matter concentration on the incidence of scours in milk replacer fed calves. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 54:73. Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 68, No. 7, 1985