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78 Francis Bacon and the Politics of Science, John E. IA. 310 pages. ISBN: 0-8138-1407-3. $34.95. Leary, Jr. 1994. Iowa State University Press, Ames, This incisive study reinterprets Bacon and his impact on scientific and political spheres. Leary skillfully traces the continuities between Bacon’s life, political career and outlook, and his program for the reform of natural inquiry. Leary begins with a rereading of the biographical information on Bacon’s life. Linking Bacon’s political career and creative efforts on reformed science, he persuasively argues that Bacon was a &dquo;politique&dquo; turned-philospher rather than a philosopher-turned &dquo;politique.&dquo; The remainder of the book is devoted to the thesis that Bacon’s political outlook and plan for restructuring natural inquiry show the same blend of conservatism and desire for progress. Beyond elucidating a vital aspect of Bacon’s thought, this study sheds light on relations between society at a crucial moment in the emergence of the modern outlook. science and From Five Fingers to Infinity: A Journey Through the History of Mathematics, Frank J. Swetz. Open Court Publishing Co., Chicago, IL. 704 pages. ISBN: 0-8126-9193-8(hc); 0-8126-9194-6(pb). $64.95(hc); $28.95(pb). 1994. From Five Fingers to Infinity tells the story of the history of mathematics in the form of 114 popularly conceived and entertainingly written articles, organized in a chronological and thematic manner. Together the articles cover all the most important areas, and can be read as a consistent narrative history. The articles are culled from the best and most approachable pieces ever written in this area: some are by such well-known writers as Carl Boyer, Howard Eves, Morris Kline, and Dirk Struik. Others are real gems by lesser-known writers, which Frank Swetz has found in his exhaustive search of the literature. Among the distinctive features of this volume are: A deeply multicultural treatment, with consideration of the mathematical accomplishment; s of traditional peoples, native Americans, and others, not usually discussed in histories of mathematics; actual translations from early and epoch-making mathematical texts; a comprehensive review of Babylonian mathematical achievements; a sensitivity to the social and cultural context of mathematical endeavors; over 300 relevant, provocative, and helpful illustrations, and 18 ’historical exhibits;’ informative and illuminating introductions and pointers and extensive bibliographical information. Each article is short and self-contained. Fingers to Infinity has been conceived and designed for three reference on the history of mathematics; and a classroom text. general From Five uses: Enjoyable personal reading; a the Feeble Mind: A History of Mental Retardation in the United States, James W. Jr. 1994. University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. 383 pages. ISBN: 0-520-08243-5. $30.00. Trent, Inventing Half-wits, dunces, dullards, idiots: Though often teased and tormented, the feebleminded were once a part of the community, cared for and protected by family and community members. But in the 1840s, a group of American physicians and reformers began to view mental retardation as a social problem requiring public intervention, which often meant institutionalization. James W. Trent uses public documents, private letters, investigative reports, and rare photographs to explore our changing perceptions of &dquo;feeble minds&dquo; over the past 150 years. Trent contends that the economic vulnerability of mentally retarded people (and their families), more than the claims made for their intellectual or social limitations, has determined their institutional treatment. He finds that superintendents, social welfare agents, IQ testers, and sterilizers have utilized psychological and medical paradigms that insured their own social privilege and professional legitimacy. Not only moving &dquo;from care to control,&dquo; state schools have become places where care is an integral part of control. In analyzing the current policy of deinstitutionalization, Trent concludes that it has been more successful in dispersing disabled citizens than in integrating them into American communities. Downloaded from bst.sagepub.com at University of Texas Libraries on June 6, 2015