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finally, to the doctrines maintained by Mesmer. To Puysegur, however, we owe the discovery of artificial somnambulism, which, as is well known, was first put treatment of diseases of the throat and on a scientific basis by Braid. In the concluding chapPHARYNX ter the writer gives a brief review of the modern scienHi young or refractory patients in whom antiseptic tific study of hypnotism from Braid to Charcot, and applications to the throat become necessary. The he inclines rather to the doctrines of the school of La desired articles are incorporated in the form of a com- Salpêtrière than to those of the school of Nancy. In pressed tablet, which is flavored with peppermint, conclusion he gives the result of his own researches and has no appreciable taste of the antiseptic substances on the circulation in four hypnotized patients, which contained in the tablet. Those shown to the Society shows that there is probably in the hypnotic state a were made of salicylic acid, corrosive sublimate, borax, condition of cerebral congestion. Such being the case, etc. ; and in no sample was there any disagreeable these repeated congestions and the excessive functiontaste. They are prepared from formula} of Dr. Wil- ing to which the brain is exposed in hypnosis may lead to definite troubles of nutrition and permanent alteraliams, by Wyeth & Co. Du. Harold Williams exhibited preparation for tho samples of a new tions in the brain. He therefore takes a definite stand against public exhibitions, and is a firm believer in the possible dangers that may arise. The book is an interesting and careful study, and is a valuable contribution to the history of hypno- LRecent iterature tism. Par le Dr. L. Regnier. 8vo, pp. xxiii, 223. With forty-six The Psychic Life of Micro-Organisms: A Study in illustrations and four plates. Paris: Aux Bureaux Experimental Psychology. By Alfred Binet. Translated from the French, by Thomas McCordu Progr\l=e`\s M\l=e'\dical. 1891. mack, with a preface by the author, written espeThe idea is; current that hypnotism dates back to a rather remote antiquity ; that it has been practised by cially for the American edition. 8vo, pp. xii, 120. the Hindoos for centuries and that it was not unknown Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Company. 1889. in Egypt and Greece. The object of the present work A little book representing one of the first systematic is to study carefully the history of hypnotism, and to see how far the current idea is correct. That natural efforts to differentiate "psychic life," or "vitalism," from somnambulism must have existed from all antiquity the harder facts of physiological chemistry. The submust be admitted. The physiological and pathological jects treated are of such intense interest, and at tho conditions have varied so little within recorded time same time of auch extreme complexity, that it would that such conditions must necessarily have arisen, just hardly be possible to conceive of their being settled as we know that ecstasy, hysteria and similar morbid after one discussion ; and that end has certainly not conditions have arisen in all ages. The question is, been here accomplished. Few will be found to deny may be found some elementa of true psychic however, whether a somnambulism artificially pro- that there with unconsciousness on waking, that is, a energy in the lowest organisms with which we are yet duced, true hypnotism,—was known at a remote period. The acquainted, but our knowledge is as yet so elementary author begins his study, therefore, with the sacred that convincing arguments to that effect are exceedhooks of India, and then considers the magic of the ingly difficult to come at. There is certainly vast room haldees and tho Hebrews, the temple-healing, and for investigation in this direction, the lines for which h. C. e. the various practices of oracles and sibyls among the are but just begiuiug to be indicated. Creeks and Romans, and studies with care the practice of .sorcery and the magic art of tho Middle Ages, The Micro Organisms of the Human Mouth: The LoGeneral Diseases which are Caused by Them. e finds in the Upanishads the first record in the cal and Willoughby E. Miller, D. D. S., M. D., By of here he directions for producing states ecstasy, but Professor at the University of Berlin. With 128 unds that the ecstatic preserved a complete memory of his hallucinations. The dreams of the patients in the illustrations, one Chromo-Lithographic, and two week temples of healing were spontaneous, and the p. xxii, 364. Photo-Micrographic Plates. 8vo, Patients often had to wait mauy nights before they Philadelphia. The S. S. White Dental Mfg. Co. 1890. came ; but, although the priests employed these dreams a"d other suggestions to influence the imagination of The first edition of Dr. Miller's admirable work in u,e patients, they never put the patients into a hyp- German was published in 1889 ; and the book before state and gave them true hypnotic suggestions. us is a translation of the same, with certain enlargefucallike manner, in all the trance conditions and hyster- ments and additions iu the way of illustrations. It is outbursts of tho Middle Ages, there is no evidence the most complete of which we have any knowledge, 01 artificially-produced sleep, and no record of somnaiii- in the special line of which it treats, and must be an "ulie states with oblivion on waking. "There were invaluable aid to any one who wishes either to investi°ertainly hipnotizable individuals, who perhaps fell gate the same subject, or to kuow what has been done asleep themselves, or were put to sleep by chance ; already iu this direction. "it, if there were such persons, there were no hypuoA certain amount of knowledge of the processes set 'zieis who knew how to aud up by tho various forms of bacteria found in the mouth provoke sleep artificially 0 utilize it for various ends." In the sixteenth cen- is a matter of necessity to every well-educated dental .'"'.V Various doctrines concerning animal magnetism surgeon, and nowhere cau this knowledge be better lio ¿an to arise, inaugurated Paracelsus, and devel- obtained than in the book here spoken of. °Pl'd by Kircher, Maxwell byand others. This led, H. O. E. Hypnotisme R. et Croyances Anciennes. — notic . The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal as published by The New England Journal of Medicine. Downloaded from nejm.org at SAN DIEGO (UCSD) on June 26, 2016. For personal use only. No other uses without permission. From the NEJM Archive. Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.