메인 Journal of Education Book Review: Plant BreedingPLANT BREEDING. Comments of the Experiments of Nilsson and Burbank. By...
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736 June JOURNAL OF EDUCATION cause decay. Tbey should be picked and packed carefall)' in crates then put in a sanitary place until sold. I did not pack an)' tomlItoes at all, but the very best oIDetbod is to wrap tbelit ·in tissue paper, so if one spoils it win not make a_lIer one spoil. After they have 'Wrapped in tissue paper they should be put into a basket and then aated with care to avoid bruising them in transportation. The relation of club work to school w~rk is self-iraprovtiment, because you have to read the bulletins and work out the problems of saving fruits and vegetables, Spellina and writinlr, because we are required to write, which teacbes composition as well as new words and their meaninll. In writing 01" composition I am helped in grammar and history dates. In aeography it helps to learn the dillerent kinds of soil suited to the different kinds of plants and their location. I get physiology from it too. We need the sunlight and fresh air to inlure good health. We breathe out the carbon dioxide and the plutl breatb ont !>xygen and we take in oxygen and the;r take in carbon dioxide. So you see it is suited to both. We get both an educational and commercial value Ior oar efforts put forth on our one-tenth acre. By exhibitina our canned products it may stimulate others to try to do something for themselves which will reduce the hilrh cost of living expenses. .My yield one-tenth acre, was ;;.3M pound. that I weiahed. I canned 2,2M No.2 cans, 212 No.3 cans, 64 pounds of catchup and 50 pounds of tomatoes in jars. My father will sell all that I canned in No. 2 cans in the comissary for the turpentine hands. My club work has been very beneficial to me in many ways, viz: pleasure and monev that I have and expect to receive for the vegetables that I canned. I am going to put what I get in the bank for future educational purposes. TO~ATOES. These vegetables are the most p )O)ular. are the most commonly put up. Select fruit that is fully ripe: plunge it into boiling water for a few minutes ; or until the skins cra~k, after which the skins may be easily removed by a thin-bladed pocket knife. Pack the fruit whole into cans or jars. There ,viii be sufficient juice to obviate the necessity of adding water exhaust for ten minutes and cook in open bath ior thirty or iorty minutes, .depending upon the size of the can. This vegetable may also be processed for ten minutes in a closed bath at 240 degrees Fahrenheit, but the product from the closed bath is apt to be discolored. T' Ie. I' WBY JtIW) "IV AItBU!:" IN BIGB SCHOOLS? All will agree that the novel is one of the most important forms of literature for high school study. The study of the novel is the study of the life and character. It is of great interest. Here is the teacher's opportunity to stimulate the nupils' love for literature and to help him discriminate between the true and the false. It should also be made an important factor in developing character. The stndy' of "Ivanhoe" should awaken a love of history. It should be read with careful attention and with imagination keenly alive. When a fair master)' of the facts has been obtained, and clear mental images of the scenes portrayed, studiesof plot, character, scenes and a general interpretation of the story should follow. This will stimulate thought and imagination and help to form a ba,;s for sound judgment. . The plan for the accomplishment of this involves three steps:First, preparation of the class Ior taking up the work. PurPos~, to arouse an interest. The recitation period gives an opportunity for this. zs, 1914 Second, reading and study for the purpose oi obtaining the facts. Third. comprehensive study of the book, as a whole. Different parts of the story should be told by the students. Questions should be asked to test the understanding, to enable the pupils to read between the lines and to awaken curiosity. Essential results to be obtained: Familiarity with the details of the story. Specific aims: To have the class understand the thought and to develop an appreciation of Scott's works. To train the student to form the habits or arranging hIS ideas in some form of perspective and to appreciate the style studied. To encourage the pupils to do some original thinking and to make comparisons. A Teacher of Experience 1.1.1. I BOO!q TABLE THE BACKWARD CHILD. A Studv of the Psvchology and Treatment of Backwardness. By Barbara Soofford Morgan. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Cloth. 263 pp. Price, $l.25. One inestimable good that must be credited to this day is the fOCU9ing of attention .upon the importance of the unimportant child, upon the gathering in of the stragglers, upon the cleaning up of our educational back yards, unon the ennobling of the ivnoble. It is said at the Geor.. e Junior Republic that it is a Il'reat gain to get an untidy bo .. to nolish the front oi his shoes. but that the social regeneration is complete when be also polishes the h"e15.· . A teacber who succeeds in developing slow scholars. trick actors in school, is pronounced a success and from one standpoint is a success, but the teacher who gives attention to the awkward squad is the really suecessiul leader. No awkward soldier ever learned the manual of arms by merely being searched by the reviewing officer while on dress parade. He learns the manual of arms in the awkward squad. Here is a book which should be in the hands of every teacher who gathers the awkward squad for adequate practice. It is a radical departure from present and past psychological lines of work. Its aim is an analysis of mental faculties to find the cause of individual backwardness ther than the mere classifying of mental defectives: a d its subject-matter is the backward child who will rain in the community rather than institutional cases. SIggested systems of training to develop the neglected o unexercised functions which are responsible for such b ckwardness, are offered. The book is based on per~ nal expeeience and contains a number of diagnoses of diffic!,lt cases, with the results achieved through special th-alOmg. PLANT BREEDING. Comments of tire Experimen/\ of Nilsson and Burbank. By Hugo De Vries. Professor in University of Ams.rdam. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company. Cloth. - Illustrated. 300 pp. . Hugo De Vries comes near being to this century what Charles Darwin was to his times. He interpret. evolution ,in the light of recent science. Darwin did what 110 one else had ever done, as much as it was possible for anyone to do in that stage of science, but the last sixty years have been full of scientific revelations and no one has been able to interpret the latest in science as completely, as intelligently, as brilliantly as has Professor De Vries. \Vhile his great work, comparable in many respects to the great wnrk of Charles Darwin. is his "Species and Varieties, Their Origin by Mutation," this famous study of the discoveries by Dr. Hjalmar Nilsson, and the experiments <of Luther Burbank is of inestimable scientific sen-ice since it shows conclusively that all the results of both of these men agree whollv with De Vries' theory of mutation. which is founded 0);' the principle of the unit-characters, Huec De Vries lifts the experiments of Nilsson, Burhank, La Courter. Shirrell. Mallett. Rimpan, Hays, tho Funks. P. G. Holden, and others into the realism of high scientific demonstrations. It is a book without a companion piece in modern botanical. horticultural. or agricultural literature. June 25, 1914 MODERN PROSE AND POETRY FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS. Edited with Notes, Study Helps, Reading Lists and Themes. By Margaret Ashmun. Boston, New York, Chicago: Houghton. Mifflin Company. Cloth. 3"25 pp. Priee, 85 cents. The use of modern literature in teaching English is 1I0W as important as are April showers in New England. To teach ancient classics only is as senseless a~ to serve only stale bread to everyone because it is safest to some. Miss Ashmun has chosen forty selections that are good literature. all modern. and many of them very recent. The selection from "The Promised Land," by Mary Antin, only twenty years an American, and only about twelve years out ofl the public schools. IS good literature. Other present day writers are Dallas Lore Sharp, Woodrow Wilson, William Vaughn Moody, Josephine Preston Peabody. Edith M. Thomas, Mary Johnson, George Cabot Lodge, John Burroughs, and "F. Hopkinson Smith. Other modern wniters are Thomas Bailey Aldrich, William Dean Howells. Edmund C1ar.. nee Stedman. Walt Whitman, Richard Watson Gilder, Henry James, Charles Dudley Warner, and Bret Harte. PO£MS ET CHANTS DE FRANCE. Selected and edited, with notes and vocabulary. By W. M. Daniels and Rene Travers. Roston: D. C. Heath &: Co. Cloth ISO pp. Price, 50 cents. "French Poems and Songs" J. contains seventy selections from the works of some forty poets, including <:opee, Deroulede, Gautier, Hugo, Lamartine, Leconte -de Lisle, de Musser, Rostand and de Vigoy. The first ten selections are accompanied by music, first among them being. of course, the "Marseillaise." In addition English translations of thirteen of the poems are appended, enabling the pupil to make a comparison of the poetic genius of the two literatures. There is an interesting introduction, in French. on French prosody. The notes are printed where they belong, at the foot of the page. The vocabulary IS ar1'anged in a distinctive and attractive way. The typOgTaphy in general .is extremely good; the impression of neatness and clearness strikes One immediately on openinR' the book. For teachers especially in secondary schools who wish to give their classes an insight into French poetry, no better text is available, (;ONTlNUITY. The Presidential Address to the By Sir Oliver Lodge. British Association for 1913. Supplemented by explanatory notes. New York: G. P. Putnam & Sons. Cloth. 131 pp. Price, $1.00. Tendencies apparent to-day, says Sir Oliver Lodge. are to take refuge in vague forms of statement. to shrink irom closer examination of the obscure and puzzling. to -deny the existence of anything which makes no appeal 10 organs of sense, and towards comprehensive negative generalizations from a limited point of view. Azainst these tendencies he urges a belief ultimate -eontinuity as essential to science. he regards scientific -eoncentration as an adequate basis for philosophical -generalization; he believes that obscure phenomena may be expressed simply i( properly faeed; and he points Out that the non-appearance of anything perfectly unifor~ and omnipresent is only what should be expected, and IS 110 argument against its real, substantial existence. RURAL SCHOOLS IN CANADA. By James Collins Miller. Ph. D. New York: Teachers' College, Columbia University. Cloth. 236 pp. Price, $2.00. Canada is extremely fortunate in having such a sur'Vey of its educational systems in their relation to rural education produced by a keen student and furnished 'JI'atis as it were. Dr. Miller covers the field in a surprls'Ingly thorough way, taking every point from a national 'and local point of V'iew,-units of organization. financial support. rural school teachers, inspection and supetvis'ion, courses of study, attendance, buildings and equlplIIent, conveyance of pupils and consolidation, advanced There is not a chapter -classes and secondary schools. 'in the hook that would not prove enlightening to those interested in rural schools in our own coantry. DEUTSCHES HEFT. A German Note Book. Arranged bv W. E. Weber, M. A., compiler of .. A French Notebook." Cambridge (England): University Press. Boards. 128 pp. As is evident from the title, this book is intended for the use of pupils -in German, for transcribing the results 737 o( their study. SPace is provided for declension of nouns of the varions c1astn, ,of adjeC:tln.. forI tone... ives. pronouns, the a"ide, prepoeiuOlls, the .d the conjunction, and especially Ihe conjugatiOll of of both classes. The book should be of considerable h", in fixing the forms of German g1'ammar in the milia of the pupils. HOW TO APPRECIATE THE DR."'MA. Sl' Thomas L. Marble. Ne,,' York: Hinds, Noble and Eldredge. 12mo. Cloth. 285 pn, Price, $1.25. This work has been prepared with this thought Ihat some attendants on dramatic pres..,&ations require the information it COlttaios 10 U 10 understand the pIa" they see. and Ihat diose who think they can. see through the plays ril ICe much more .nd appreciate what is seen or hnrd tmleh more 4titrh1r by wh.t the author suggests. ~intrinSiC vJlpe 0 certain pIa" frequently escapes e, at,tentio,n 01 sp~ctators, and thee motive of the pIa or' acfllr It not _ , with_ some larger aequa' with tlte draDla tllan the oasophisticated ordin P.dssess. It is a well~Writtea work. Some plays are given in exten--.uch I I "11M Cricket on the Hearth," and ...th ",aminal aDnotations of considerable meaning and vl\lqe. Then the work is embellished with excellent pottY:ilts' 'of . twentf-eight playwrights and authors such as Bernhardt, Irvin.., Mansfield. Pinero aad Belasco•. TECHNICAL TRlWNOMETRY. By Horace Wilmer Marsh of Dejiart1llent of MathematicI, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. New York: 10l\n. Wiler_& Sons. 12mo. Cloth. 23'2 pp, Pricel - 'I.llO, net. Volume IV in a series of contri1icbte' mathemati.,.1 and practical hand. The books prepared by a ~liIpetenl author's position in ma\fiematici and science .nd Teehnology in the famous Pratt Institute is the warrant for able publications in his special lines or stuclyand instrucT!Us,W9Wme <I tion. He is a master in......ltjee:n. the result of "persistent, psychological, pedagolJical and experimental study of the capacities, acquirements, natural inclinations, and neeesshies of the student who would learn trigonometry." The author has pro,-ided a volume which is closely related to the manufaclurin.. and technical industries of our t-ime into "hich branch o( effort many a promising student hopes and expectl to enter to-day as a life work, and for which he musl be equipped with all that makes for accuracy in his callin... Mathematicians, \\'ill not be slow to welcome such a valuable treatise as Mr. Marsh has provided. EDUCATIONAL SCHOOL G."'RDENING AND HANDWORK. By G. W. S. Brewer. Cambrid.... (Eng.) University Press: (New York): G. P. Putnam's Sons. 12mo. C1olh. 192 pp. Price, GO cents. A British book on School Gardening. British children are trained to be eJqlCrls in thil branch o( Nature Study. And this work .s an expolition o( the methodl of raising Rowers and vegetables, togcther with the tools necessary for their cultivation. There are sixteen chapters devoted to this subject, and Ilxty-five drawines and illustrations explanatory of the text. The authot il .n inspector in this line and writes out of an extended experience gathered from his observationl. School gardeos are a Ieature in English school life that is "ery altrac' live. FIRST OBSERVATIONS IN ASTRONOMY. Handbook for Schools and Colleges. By Mary E. Syrd, Ph. D., Concord, N. H.: Rumford Press, Cloth. n· lust rations. Whoever makes it easy and attractive to Itudy the stars, makes all important contribution to educatioa that uplifts human t~ht and ennobles Itudentl. Min Byrd here makes such • contribution. The book II small and handy, but the directions are adequate, dear, and interesting. No one need have the slichtest difllculty in learning everythinJ here suggested or in teaching it in every detail and wlm interest closely akin to inspiration, and whoever has mastered the heavens with this book as a guide will be intelligent about the stars and other heavenly bodiel and will find lifelong comfort and joy in looking into the heavens,